Like out on the roads, most of the cyclists you find making YouTube videos right now are men.
But there are some really great YouTube cycling channels that are by women, for women, or both.
There’s mixture here between road cycling, mountain biking, gravel, more race oriented, cycling for fitness, and cycling just for fun.
But enough of me waffling on, let’s get right into the list. Oh… it’s in no particular order. We’re all friends here.
You want the videos in some kind of order?
OK then, here’s all of the best female cycling YouTuber’s in a big table. You can click on any of the columns to sort them however you like. I know, I spoil you.
|Tilly On A Bike||497||5||19,115|
|Get Fit With Natasha||142,000||331||40,422,410|
|Kym Perfetto (Kym NonStop)||137,000||364||9,147,461|
|Syd Fixes Bikes||131,000||75||43,716,408|
|Human on the Loose||3,960||67||421,935|
|Global Cycling Network||3,010,000||4,323||1,017,494,246|
|Black Girls Do Bike||2,950||86||69,540|
Tilly on a bike
- Total Views:19,115
My name’s Tilly Field and these are my insights into the life and mind of a competitive cyclist and off-road rider.Tilly on a bike on YouTube
My Favourite Video from Tilly on a Bike
Why I like this video: I really like Zwift. I’ve done the Zwift Academy now for the last three years and I rate it – though the most recent year (2021) felt significantly easier than the previous two. I should caveat that with the fact I’m not a pro cyclist, I wasn’t going for a pro contract, and this years Zwift Academy Pro Contract was much harder.
This was a really insightful video into just how much fitter and harder the pros (or those wanting to go pro) are capable of riding at than the rest of us mere mortals.
It’s a shame Tilly doesn’t have more videos, as the small number she has made are really well produced, informative, and have that ‘typical YouTube vibe’ about them that seem to do well on other channels.
Get Fit with Natasha
- Total Views:40,422,410
Hey gang, welcome to my channel. Any fitness/lifestyle/weight loss questions – please post them in the comments section of any of my videos 🙂 xx NatashaGet Fit with Natasha on YouTube
My Favourite Video from Get Fit with Natasha
Why I like this video: We should probably get this out of the way early:
Natasha is a Victoria’s Secret lingerie model.
That’s not why I like this video. But be prepared, because the comments are pretty much what you’d expect.
Why I like this video, and many of the cycling videos on Natasha’s channel is because they aren’t full-on roadie. Look at the thumbnail above. No cycling shorts (ouch!), no clipless pedals, no jersey… just Natasha getting out on her bike to help keep fit.
Personally I love hearing about how other people got into cycling and where that journey has taken them.
This is an interesting video because usually the nutrition aspect of cycling is about growing big leg muscles and things like what to eat during big rides or race day. However this video, and many of the others on Natasha’s channel approach this from a completely different angle. And to me, that’s really interesting.
- Total Views:22,425,062
My name is Katie and I wanted to create easy to follow resources that will help you along your cycling, weight loss and journey of adventure.
I have shared my whole journey from being around 100kg and having never ridden a road bike before to losing more than 35kg and riding hundreds of kilometres in a day all on YouTube. So I know how it feels to struggle up hills, be mocked for being an ‘overweight cyclist’ and always be the one at the back of a group ride.
So I wanted to show what has worked for me to be able to lose weight, get faster, and climb mountains to enable you to reach your goals.
I don’t teach calorie restriction or vigorous and exhausting work outs.
‘I like mountains’ is what I’m all about; the adventure lifestyle that helps bring around long-lasting changes for ultimate happiness and fulfilment.Katie Kookaburra at i like mountains
My Favourite Video from Katie Kookaburra
Why I like this video: Katie has a ton of videos, and I’m working my way through them all.
Choosing just one to say is my favourite is super tough. But with two young girls of my own, this video is all about the potential challenges ahead, not unique to cycling but life in general for all women.
Katie is a super inspirational rider and video maker, and as she lives kinda close to where I do, a lot of her content covers similar locations to those I ride. There are also videos on gear reviews, trips abroad, bike packing, lots of longer distance rides, and more.
If you’re looking for a very friendly, welcoming, and accessible female cycling YouTube channel then Katie should be a must watch.
- Total Views:1,024,712
Combining her sultry voice and electric guitar to create rock songs infused with blues and soul, Mary Spender’s songwriting showcases her virtuosic style of guitar playing as well as her wide vocal range.Mary Spender / #ProofOfSweat – Singer, Songwriter, Guitarist, Video Maker (AND CYCLIST!)
My Favourite Video from #ProofOfSweat
Why I like this video: I was tricked by the title of this video.
We cyclists love to talk about “suffering”. Personally, I’m not a massive fan of the term. But to the trained eye it looks as though this is going to be a video about Mary having being riding for ten years.
Instead this is a video about the benefits of a good bike fit. I think if more people got a proper bike fit at, or very near to the start of buying their first bike, they would get a lot more use out of it. Yes, we are going to get hot, sweaty, and tired riding. But that doesn’t mean we need to put our knees, shoulders, and backsides through a lot of unnecessary pain along the way.
Although Mary has only a handful of cycling videos, all of them are really well produced, very easy to watch and I’m confident if Mary continues to put out videos of this quality her channel is going to be massive.
- Total Views:34,488,830
I am Viola, a german artistic cyclist and would like to show you what you can do with a bike. I am uploading videos of my bicycle tricks but also little vlogs about the backstage area of the shows I do and other things out of my life as cyclist, performer, science student. Enjoy 🙂Violalovescycling on YouTube
My Favourite Video from Violalovescycling
Why I like this video: Something really rather different now.
Smooth roads, beautiful mountains, and a glorious summer’s day. All typical scenes you might find watching the Tour de France.
And then along comes Viola pulling crazy tricks that seem to defy physics. Honestly, I don’t think I could do things like this even with the help of a Hollywood visual effects team. Heck, I get scared letting go of the bars to zip up my gilet.
Anyway, very cool, very different, and very much worth a watch.
- Total Views:17,897,464
I’m a multi-discipline bike racer who loves big adventures.
I race fixed gear crits, road, cyclocross, gravel and mountain bikes and have a penchant for bikepacking.
Named one of Bike Biz’s ‘Most Influential Women in Cycling’, and a ‘Woman To Watch’ by YouTube, I’m an award winning blogger and creative. I enjoy sharing inspirational cycling stories on all platforms. My work can be found in a diverse range of publications, here on YouTube channel and via my blog, Bikes n’ Stuff. I’m former pro snowboarder and modelJuliet Elliott on YouTube
My Favourite Video from Juliet Elliott
Why I like this video: I love watching videos that cover how other people make money. And when they make money from cycling (in a non-traditional / pro-contract way) then that ticks even more boxes.
What I like about Juliet Elliot is that she’s a great example of passion and determination.
Clearly Juliet is incredibly passionate about cycling in general. Gravel, bike packing, fixies… it’s different stuff to what I’m personally interested in but it’s close enough to still grab my interest.
And determination to stick with a sport for the long term. Always on the look out for new opportunities to do better, not only for her sponsors but for herself. I really admire that.
Beyond YouTube you can find Juliet in a bunch of places, but the one I’d point you towards is Bikes ‘n’ Stuff, Juliet’s blog. As a tip, you can find Juliet’s other links in her blog footer 🙂
- Total Views:1,455,127
I’m a cycling vlogger from Brisbane, Australia. If you like what you see subscribe for more videos every week.Emily Fowler on YouTube
My Favourite Video from Emily Fowler
Why I like this video: Emily’s 100km ride on Zwift was my introduction to her channel. I’m still yet to find out why she chose to ride this one her local bike shop as previous videos do show that Emily has a home Zwift setup. Perhaps it was simply for a bit of social activity during an otherwise fairly long and monotonous ride?
As I say, I found this one because I too was looking at doing my first (metric) century on the turbo. And on Zwift specifically. In the end I decided to do mine outdoors in a large group ride. Watching this video does show that I missed out on a jersey unlock!
Emily’s YouTube channel is very much a cycling vlog. I really like that format, lots of day to day real life riding. However as Emily is in Australia her year round riding conditions are significantly more favourable than the ones I experience here in the UK 🙂
Kym Perfetto (Kym NonStop)
- Total Views:9,147,461
I’m KYM NONSTOP! I’m an Apple Fitness+ Trainer and bike racer, who’s travelled the world on The Amazing Race! This channel is here to help us all lead a healthy, happy, adventurous lifestyles while keeping it real, tackling fears and uplifting one another.
Outside of YouTube, you may have seen me on The Amazing Race, MTV’s Made, Access Hollywood, The Today Show and even the summer action film “Premium Rush” or any SoulCycle studios around the US, as a founding instructor.Kym Perfetto on YouTube
My Favourite Video from Kym Perfetto
Why I like this video: The title probably gives this one away.
I was out looking for a way to improve my upper body. As a regular cyclist my legs and overall cardio have massively improved over the last three years. However my upper body is pretty much as it was. A bit leaner, but who wouldn’t love some beach body abs?
Being completely naive, I thought abs were what I should be chasing. However this video led me down a different route which was to work on my core. Perhaps that’s obvious to you, but to me it was something of a revelation.
Working on your core strength as a cyclist can help with posture and balance, reduce lower back pain, and strengthen the muscles around your pelvis. This doesn’t replace a good bike fit (see my favourite video from #ProofOfSweat for why that is), but it’s a great addition.
As a pro tip, don’t follow the exercises that Kim instructs in this video using your existing turbo trainer mat for your exercises. You will come off smelling absolutely disgusting! Learn from my mistakes.
- Total Views:8,175,365
At Liv, we put women first in everything we do, every frame we build, every component we spec, and every piece of gear we design. We want your cycling experience to be perfect from the very first ride.LivCycling on YouTube
My Favourite Video from LivCycling
Why I like this video: This video LivCycling is short, simple, and too the point.
It’s easy to forget that we were all beginners once, and we have all likely made some or all of these riding position mistakes at some point.
Not only does this video give a quick and easily digestible set of instructions, it also teaches you some terminology such as drops, tops, and hoods. If you stick around the world of cycling for any length of time, you will hear those terms and this video is a quick intro to what they mean.
- Total Views:392,023
On December 22, 2012, Juliana Buhring set the first ever Guinness World Record for Fastest Woman to Cycle the World. Follow her adventures here.Juliana Buhring on YouTube
My Favourite Video from Juliana Buhring
Why I like this video: Juliana’s channel is mostly videos covering her journey of breaking the World Record as the fastest woman cycling 29,070km across 19 countries. Pretty incredible stuff. And also very brave.
It’s pretty hard to pick just one video from this channel as they all follow along that same ride.
Each video is short, you could binge watch the entire channel over two 30 minute lunch breaks. Which is exactly what I did 🙂
- Total Views:3,262,229
My name is Keira McVitty and I’m an ex-professional cyclist turned Youtuber. I make videos about my cycling adventures!Keira McVitty on YouTube
My Favourite Video from Keira McVitty
Why I like this video: Much like how I first found KymNonStop when searching for videos related to
getting abs strengthening my core as a cyclist, I found Keira McVitty when I was searching for headphones for cycling.
Yes, I know… a controversial subject. Should you wear headphones / listen to music when riding outdoors, as it could potentially impede your ability to hear traffic.
Well, that was partly what I was keen to understand. I’d heard about AfterShockz bone conduction headphones and how they don’t block your ears at all.
This turned out to be a super in-depth review and easily the best Open Move review specifically aimed at cyclists that I found.
In the end I opted for using one of the Google Pixel buds I got ‘free’ with my Pixel phone. And sadly I never did get to try the AfterShockz. But still, a great review and it got my subscription to Keira’s YouTube channel ever since.
Syd Fixes Bikes
- Total Views:43,716,408
Welcome to the shed! After being injured and off the bike for nine months, I decided to do something useful with my time, and learn how to wrench on my own bike. Luckily my husband is a patient teacher. Join us each week as we drink too much coffee, make big messes, and fix bikes.Syd Fixes Bikes on YouTube
My Favourite Video from Syd Fixes Bikes
Why I like this video: Does your bike do odd things when you shift gears?
Maybe it skips one gear too many, whether shifting up or down.
Or maybe it shifts to the right gear, but then clicks every few rotations, as though it’s catching on something.
Or worse, your bike changes gear… and then changes back!
Ever had any of these issues?
It’s probably that your bike’s gears are not properly indexed. And whilst it’s a fairly quick fix, it’s also somewhat fiddly and intuitive.
I’ve watched many YouTube videos on indexing bike gears, but the one that finally gave me that a-ha! moment was watching Syd’s in-depth walk-through of the topic. Yes, it’s about mountain bikes. But conceptually it’s the same as indexing gears on your road bike.
- Total Views:175,900
I rode a really long way in 2016 (52,025 km) but now I just ride, preferably somewhere scenic, with an overnighter under the stars. Hang around if you want to share some adventures with me!Kajsa Tylen on YouTube
My Favourite Video from Kajsa Tylen
Why I like this video: I confess to only finding out about Kajsa’s channel during the research for this blog post.
What I have already learned is that Kasja broke the world record for miles ridden on a bike, in a year, by a woman. In 2016 Kasja rode a bottom numbing 32,326 miles (that’s 52,025 kilometres in cycling numbers). Averaging just over a thousand kilometres per week is, frankly, incredible. Amazingly that record has since been broken by Amanda Coker, who clocked up an astonishing 86,573.2 miles. That’s 10,497 more than the man’s record.
Now, as you have (maybe just) found out, Kajsa rides in a different manner to most of us. Long distances, gravel, and bike packing. I’m not very good at long distances, I have never ridden nor owned a gravel bike, and the idea of bike packing is a long way distant from my preferred overnight luxury hotel stops.
However, that’s why I love cycling.
You do you.
A bike is one of the most freeing and rewarding things you can buy. I guess that’s why so many cyclists keep buying more bikes.
I’m really looking forwards to learning more about Kajsa as I work my way through her several hundred videos.
Type 2 Twins
- Total Views:73,883
We are two normal women doing not-so-normal things who want to make those things normal. We share knowledge, adventure, and our ridiculous sense of humour.
We’re on two main missions:
1. To encourage more people to join the long distance community.Type 2 Twins on YouTube
2. To find the secret to the elimination of faffing
My Favourite Video from Type 2 Twins
Why I like this video: As I mentioned above, I discovered Kajsa Tylan during the research for this post, and it was through her channel that I found Type 2 Twins, her earlier(?) YouTube channel.
I’m curious as to the status of this channel as it doesn’t seem to have been updated in a year, but Kasja’s other channel implies the two will be run side by side.
Anyway, Type 2 Twins is Kasja and her friend and fellow hardcore cyclist Jane Scott, an ultra triathlete.
What these two have achieved in combination if remarkable.
Now, you may be wondering what the “type 2” thing means. My first thought was: diabetes.
But if type 2 diabetes is most commonly caused by being overweight and / or inactive, then surely it couldn’t be that?
Apparently there are three types of fun:
- Type 1 Fun: enjoyable whilst it’s happening. I guess you could think of this as simply “having fun”.
- Type 2 Fun: miserable whilst it’s happening, but gives you a feeling of fun in hindsight.
- Type 3 Fun: miserable whilst it’s happening, and miserable in hindsight.
Type 3 fun sounds like no fun at all.
But I do understand the idea behind Type 2 fun 🙂
- Total Views:943,903
I have spent the last 8 years, chasing my dream on 2 wheels. I used to race for a woman’s Elite Race Team called Storey Racing. I have been lucky enough to travel round the UK and Europe racing my bike making the most incredible memories! Last year, 2020 I decided, with a heavy heart but a huge desire to achieve more that I would hang up my racing wheels and pursue a different career. HOW EXCITING and OVERWHELMING all at the same time!
I am currently training to be a cycling coach and I am loving every step of my new direction so far and excited for what the future holds! I am a huge believer that in order to pursue absolute happiness in life, first you have to channel everything into being the best version of yourself!Monica Dew at MonicaDew.com
My Favourite Video from Monica Dew
Why I like this video: Well, choosing my favourite video from Monica’s channel was really, really hard.
I absolutely love the Specialized Aethos, and the S-Works version looks even cooler. I guess it’s a bit like BMW’s regular range versus their M-series… if you’re a car person. Which I’m not. So I don’t know why I used that analogy.
Anyway, aside from loving the bike I think this is just a great representation of a ‘normal’ video from Monica. All her productions are really crisp, there’s a lot happening in each video so you never get bored… they are very YouTube-y, but I mean that in the best possible way.
The real surprise, to me at least, is that Monica’s subscriber count is not as high as her content deserves.
Human on the Loose
- Total Views:421,935
I honor being human by randomly roaming this wondrous marble floating in space.
I spend my time seeking out things I’ve never done – and do them – solo.
It started young. My mom has stories! 😂
I’ve captured my adventures – arm held out holding an iPhone – for 20 years! Never shared.
In July 2021 I decided to start sharing. It’s not made FOR YouTube. It’s personal. So, no drone shots or bike by’s.
Whee with purpose,Naomi (Human on the Loose) on YouTube
My Favourite Video from Human on the Loose
Why I like this video: Don’t we all love to nosy inside other people’s lives?
Whether it’s seeing how much people earn, looking inside people’s houses, or in this case, prying inside Naomi’s saddlebags, we never seem to be able to get enough with the peeping.
Personally I find myself drawn to videos like this. I guess it’s a “fear of missing out” kind of thing. Does the person making the video know or use something I don’t know about? Something that may make my own life that little bit better.
Honestly, bike packing is a little nuts in my opinion. Heck, I struggle to have everything I need when I’m trying to make it through an airline’s 21kg baggage allowance. How I’d come anywhere close to having all my essentials strapped to my top tube is, well, thankfully not something I’ve ever had to consider.
But that’s what’s great about cycling, isn’t it? It’s whatever you want it to be. Want to go fast? Cool. Want to climb hills? Awesome. Want to pack up and go on holiday? You can do that, too.
- Total Views:861,355
I´m Anna, a UK girl living in Southern Spain.
It´s a new life for me here as I ride dry, dusty trails, explore the local area and push my progression, fitness and skills.
Mountain biking is my life!Anna Glowinski on YouTube
My Favourite Video from Anna Glowinski
Why I like this video: Stretching before and / or after my rides is something I know I should do. I wanted to write ‘something I know I should do more of‘, but the truth is I am terrible for not doing this nearly as often as I should.
Heck, a little secret of mine is I only really do this on group rides, to kind of pretend I do this to my fellow cyclists. When it’s just me, I’m probably going to skip it.
But my wife is forever reminding me that I should stretch more.
I think a large part of this is because I don’t actually know how to stretch. Or more accurately, what stretches are best for me as a cyclist.
This video from Anna is a great example of beginner friendly Yoga that doesn’t need to be done on a beach with the waves crashing behind you (though wouldn’t that be nice!). And the truth of it is, just investing that ten minutes post ride can make you feel so much better the following day.
I guess I really should do this more often.
How about you? Do you stretch pre / post ride?
- Total Views:1,169,098
The Wiggle High5 Pro Cycling Team brings professional women’s cycling to the forefront of of the sport with Olympic, National and World Champions.Wiggle High5 on YouTube
My Favourite Video from WiggleHigh5
Why I like this video: Ahh the Pro team.
So far removed from my own personal ability, it’s still always nice to peer behind the curtains and get a glimpse into the lives of the pros.
What I like most about this video is that even as a professional cycling team these ladies spend a good two minutes of the video in a coffee shop drinking caffeine in all its various forms, and eating cake.
See, they are just like us after all.
Well… until they clip in and put the power down, anyway.
- Total Views:723,252
Voxwomen is the world’s first ever-dedicated online international women’s cycling video channel that gives subscribers an exclusive insight into the women’s international peloton.Voxwomen on YouTube
My Favourite Video from voxwomen
Why I like this video: Earlier in this post I was talking about how cool it was to see a beginner wheelie.
Now here we are with Australian pro Tiffany Cromwell showing us how to do the Super
manwoman, a little trick that certainly isn’t UCI legal.
I’d strongly recommend not trying to do this. Especially if, like me, you’re scared of pulling a wheelie. This is a massive recipe for disaster, particularly here on the UK’s pot hole covered roads.
However, it certainly looks super cool.
Global Cycling Network
- Total Views:1,017,494,246
Straight from the boards and double European junior champion in 2014, Manon brings with her some serious track heritage and skills.
Not only did Manon win the first ever Women’s world cup Madison with Katie Archibald in Glasgow in 2016, but she’s also a qualified rally co-driver.
When not riding or racing, she looks after her three donkeys Paddy, Scooby and Bubbles. As a Welshwoman, she is of course fluent, and apparently bakes a mean Welshcake… Although we’ve yet to test this claim.Manon Lloyd at Global Cycling Network
My Favourite Video from Global Cycling Network
Why I like this video: Right then, GCN.
You’ve almost certainly heard of GCN, right?
You can’t really do a YouTube search for anything cycling related and not come across either GCN or one of their sister cycling channels.
And whilst there are over four thousand videos on GCN alone at the time of writing, it’s the videos with super cool, former pro cyclist and all round great Welsh presenter Manon Lloyd that we’re focusing on today.
Manon has tons of videos now, and picking just one was hard. But my wife suggested this one as being the most helpful for her as a complete beginner to the world of road cycling.
There’s also a brilliant series about the male and female Zwift Academy that I’d highly recommend. Very, very hard to pick just one video with GCN!
- Total Views:199,290
Hi and welcome to my channel! I’m a female mountain biker based in Switzerland and Colorado. I started mountain biking in the Rocky Mountains in the spring of 2017 and have been exploring the great outdoors on two wheels ever since. The main goal of my channel is to be an inspiration to new and aspiring female riders – if I can learn how to mountain bike and have an awesome time on the trail, then so can you! I’m also really excited to share my progression and trail riding experiences with the whole MTB community and encourage people to lead a healthy lifestyle by challenging themselves and staying active, one ride at a time!Sprocket Girl on YouTube
My Favourite Video from Sprocket Girl
Why I like this video: Yeah… I can’t wheelie.
In fact, I can’t wheelie on a BMX, let alone on my road bike.
Partly I’m scared of falling off, and partly it’s because at nearly 40 I feel like I’m too old to be showing off. But hey, there’s actually more to being able to wheelie than just looking cool. There’s a large element of balance and bike control involved, and that skill goes far beyond the humble wheelie.
When I’ve watched “how to wheelie” videos in the past, they have been created by obvious professionals. There’s nothing wrong with that, but I often think it’s hard for really experienced people to put themselves back in the shoes of a total beginner and explain the topic in an accessible way.
This video isn’t like that. Instead we watch Juliana make her exploratory steps into pulling her first wheelies. As a fellow beginner it’s really reassuring watching this. We all start somewhere and I loved how Juliana wasn’t already an expert.
What would be nice is if Juliana had a follow up video to show us how far her wheelies have progressed since first making this video. If that does exist I’ve not found it yet.
Black Girls Do Bike
- Total Views:69,540
We are growing and supporting a community of women who share a passion for cycling. We are also seeking the bike-curious. We have more than 100 interconnected chapters riding around the world and would love for you to join us!Black Girls Do Bike on YouTube
My Favourite Video from Black Girls Do Bike
Why I like this video: Crits are super, super fun.
Admittedly, I’ve only ever done Crit racing on Zwift. But they are some of the best workouts you’re going to get.
What is a crit? Well, in a nutshell it’s a short, very fast road race.
Bliss Davis has a story that many can relate too. Cycling wasn’t a natural choice, but one of necessity. Not being able to afford a car whilst needing to get around for University and work, Bliss started out as a ‘commuter’, found out she could go fast, and then naturally progressed into racing.
I learned a bunch about track cycling during this video, including that the difference between track / velodrome bikes and traditional road bikes is that track bikes don’t have gears… or brakes! Pretty crazy, right?
- Total Views:3,154,385
My name is Tess and I’m passionate about mountain biking. I love being a part of the mountain biking community and I especially love helping other women find their place in it. Whether you’re one of the gals, one of the guys, brand new to riding or an experiences shredder I hope you’ll enjoy following my journey. Welcome to the Dusty betty community!Dusty Betty on YouTube
My Favourite Video from Dusty Betty
Why I like this video: If you ask around for the best female YouTube cyclists, you will almost certainly hear about Dusty Betty.
Why leave her channel until last, you might then be wondering?
Well, it was exactly because of that reason. Most people seem to have heard of Dusty Betty and I wanted to show off all the others before you got to the one you’re most likely to have heard of.
But you’ve heard of Dusty Betty for a reason, right?
It’s because her content is consistently awesome. And again it’s a peek inside her life – or more specifically her packs – that drew me in.
You’ve probably already got a favourite Dusty Betty video of your own, so feel free to share it in the comments 🙂
You Want More?
Are you a female cycling YouTuber?
Do you know of a great female cyclist who makes YouTube videos that you believe should be on this list?
Then please do leave a comment below and let us know 🙂
I really hope you’ve enjoyed this list, and discovered at least one new channel to add to your YouTube subscriptions.